woman apos s guide to better living

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woman apos s guide to better living

Please choose a different delivery location or purchase from another seller.Please choose a different delivery location or purchase from another seller.Please try again. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. Full content visible, double tap to read brief content. Videos Help others learn more about this product by uploading a video. Upload video To calculate the overall star rating and percentage breakdown by star, we don’t use a simple average. Instead, our system considers things like how recent a review is and if the reviewer bought the item on Amazon. It also analyzes reviews to verify trustworthiness. Please try again later. pamela e. kunz 5.0 out of 5 stars It is no nonsense, no excuses. Consider changing the search query. List is empty. Consider changing the search query. List is empty. Spanish rule came late to much of the island, and was tenuous at best throughout the nineteenth century; when the Americans occupied the islands, it was here that they met their most bitter resistance. Contrary to popular perception, most of the island today is peaceful, friendly and stunningly beautiful. Yet it is true that Mindanao is one of the most impoverished areas in the Philippines and some parts are considered unsafe for tourists.In between lies Camiguin, a ravishing volcanic island off Mindanao’s northern coast, the untouched Agusan Marsh Wildlife Sanctuary, inhabited by the Manobo tribe, and the hypnotic azure waters of the Enchanted River. Also worth exploring are the western cities of Iligan and Dapitan (where national hero Jose Rizal was sent into exile), and Mount Malindang National Park, a little-known area of dense rainforest near Ozamiz. Davao in the south, the island’s de facto capital, is a friendly provincial metropolis with excellent restaurants, nightlife and endless heaps of durian, the stinky fruit that tastes like gourmet custard.

Nearby are the beaches of Samal Island and majestic Mount Apo. West of the frenetic city of General Santos, around the shores of Lake Sebu, the friendly and artistic T’boli people still live in traditional wooden houses and wear hand-woven tribal garments and adornments. Much of western Mindanao is part of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, or ARMM, an area of huge tourism potential but with the security situation in a state of flux. Highlights include the traditional Muslim city of Marawi, which stands on the northern shore of serene Lake Lanao, and the hundreds of islands that make up the spectacular Sulu archipelago, especially Tawi-Tawi. You’ll need to check the current security situation before visiting. The situation on the ground is less clear-cut. Actual incidents are rare, but those that do occur often end in tragedy. Kidnapping is still a lucrative business on the island of Basilan, the northernmost island in the Sulu chain, and if any unequivocal recommendation can be given it is that you shouldn’t go there. It’s best to seek the advice of the local tourism office before visiting any of the following locations, and where possible, to arrange a local guide when travelling. Avoid travelling at night altogether. Marawi and Lake Lanao Nestled on the shores of Lake Lanao just 25km south of Iligan, MARAWI is the centre of the Islamic religion in the Philippines: 92 percent of the population is Muslim. During the Marcos years, the area around Marawi was where kidnappers were said to hide their victims, but these days the city is generally peaceful, with incidents related to the fight for Muslim autonomy exceedingly rare; visiting with a driver and a guide is still recommended, however (contact Iligan tourist office). Marawi’s greatest natural attraction is placid Lake Lanao, which sits in a green bowl circled by distant mountains.

It’s the second largest lake in the Philippines and easy to explore via a circumferential road; there are said to be some 350 mosques ringing the lake and it’s the best place to see striking torogans, the traditional wooden homes of Marawi’s upper class. It’s also the best place to stay in the area, a quiet establishment surrounded by greenery with a good choice of well-maintained rooms. Also on the campus is the Aga Kahn Museum, which has an interesting collection of Moro art from Mindanao, Sulu and Palawan. The palitan is a two-storey market in the heart of the city where you can find virtually any type of clothing, from jeans to traditional tribal garments, colourful raw cloth and batik products, gold jewellery, exquisite wooden chests and brassware, manufactured in the nearby barangay of Tugaya. The Sulu archipelago Despite boasting some of the most unspoiled beaches in Asia, the volcanic Sulu archipelago is undiscovered country in tourist terms, and even Filipino tourists rarely come here. Much of the island chain has a well-deserved reputation for lawlessness and violence, so you need to coordinate very carefully with the tourist office in Zamboanga before heading south. At the time of writing only Tawi-Tawi was considered safe to visit. The archipelago actually comprises around 870 islands off southwest Mindanao, covering an area of 2700 square kilometres from Basilan in the north to Borneo in the south, and is home to a surprisingly large population of around twelve million. Access is either by ferry from Zamboanga (to Jolo; 1 daily; 12hr) or on an Airphil Express flight from Zamboanga to Jolo (3 times weekly; 40min) and Tawi-Tawi (1 daily; 1hr). At the southern end of the peninsula lies the island of Tawi-Tawi, whose busy little capital BONGAO is a commercial fishing centre. From Sanga-Sanga Airport just outside Bongao there are jeepneys into town for P10. Bongao Peak is a ten-minute walk inland from the town and a fairly easy climb.

The peak holds mystical powers for the locals, and villagers take sick people to the top to offer prayers. From the top, 300m above sea level, you can see all of Bongao and the surrounding islands. It’s also fun to poke around the market near the pier, known as the Chinese market, where you can buy herbs, baskets, traditional hats, prayer mats, scarves and batik clothes. Local delicacies on sale here include turtles’ eggs and tarrang bulan, pancakes sprinkled with peanuts. North Coast Mindanao Some of the most accessible (and safest) parts of Mindanao lie along the north coast, starting with the inviting city of Cagayan de Oro. The northwest coast stretching from Iligan to Dipolog is mostly rural and undeveloped, but peppered with alluring port towns and national parks, while the pint-sized island of Camiguin to the northeast is one of the country’s most appealing tourist spots. Northeastern Mindanao is known as Caraga (aka Region XIII), an area generally overlooked by foreign tourists though rich in eco-tourism potential. Highlights include the ancient wooden boat discovered at Butuan, the spell-binding Enchanted River and the surfing hotspot of Surigao. Agusan Marsh Wildlife Sanctuary About 70km south of Butuan on the road to Davao, the Agusan Marsh Wildlife Sanctuary is a giant maze of interconnecting rivers, channels and lakes, with dramatic areas of swamp forest consisting largely of sago trees and inhabited by parrots, purple herons, serpent eagles and a good number of saltwater and Philippine crocodiles. Hotels in Butuan can help arrange trips, but a locally arranged day tour in Bunawan costs around P1500 for the boat plus P1000 for the guide. Despite its isolation, the marsh is inhabited by about 2600 people, mainly the Manobo, an animist group that live across much of eastern Mindanao. Their houses are floating wooden structures with thatched roofs and rest on a platform lashed to enormous logs.

Whole communities exist like this, their houses tethered to one another in one place, but moveable at any time. Dapitan The scenic north coast city of DAPITAN, with its red-roofed houses and sweeping ocean bay, is best known for its connection to national hero Jose Rizal, who was exiled here in the 1890s. The main drag in Dapitan is Sunset Boulevard, a romantic seafront promenade where you’ll find banks, shops and a number of hotels. The Rizal Shrine on the northern edge of the city is a pleasant parkland area encompassing the grounds where Rizal spent his exile. The park contains faithful reproductions of the simple cottage he lived in (Casa Cuadrada), the octagonal schoolroom where he taught (Casa Redonda), his chicken house (Casa Redonda Pequena) and two clinics (Casitas de Salud) where he worked. The Rizal Museum (same hours; free) is also here, and contains memorabilia such as his books, notebooks and medical equipment. Rizal also designed a huge grass Relief Map of Mindanao that still exists today in F. Saguin Street. Jose Rizal in Dapitan The decision to exile Jose Rizal to Dapitan was taken so he could contemplate his sins against Spain and, “publicly retract his errors concerning religion, and make statements that were clearly pro-Spanish and against revolution”. He arrived in 1892 and left shortly before his execution in 1896. During his four-year exile Rizal was famously productive: he practised medicine and pursued scientific studies, continued his artistic and literary works, widened his knowledge of languages and established a school for boys. It was also in Dapitan that he first set eyes on Josephine Bracken, the smouldering Irish beauty whom he married in a private ceremony in his cell two hours before his execution. Tragically the son she bore Rizal was stillborn and is buried in an unmarked grave somewhere in Dapitan. Bracken married again in Hong Kong, but died of tuberculosis at the age of 26. There are also dorm beds from P250.

The real attraction here is Dolphin Island, a series of man-made stilt huts over a sand bar 2km offshore. At the time of writing the island was home to five spotted dolphins and one green turtle. There’s a basic restaurant on the island that serves fried chicken, pork and rice, and another restaurant onshore at the resort. Tricycles to MOAP from the Ozamiz ferry charge around P200. The Enchanted River Swimming in the Enchanted River (daily; P10) is one of the highlights of Mindanao. The accessible part of the river is more like a narrow saltwater lagoon that ends at an underwater cave and ravine crammed with all sorts of tropical fish that get fed every day at noon. The colours are mesmerizing; the water glows like liquid sapphire, surrounded by dense jungle and karst outcrops. The site is managed by the local authorities as a small park (you can wander to a small beach from here), but it’s well off the beaten path and very few foreign tourists make it this far. The turning to the river and Talisay is signposted 2km north of Hinatuan on the main coast road, 150km south of Butuan; the main road is served by frequent buses plying between Butuan and Mangagoy; without your own transport it’s a very long walk or habal-habal ride from Hinatuan. Iligan Some 90km west of Cagayan de Oro, the port city of ILIGAN has been working hard to shed its drab industrial image in recent years, rebranding itself as the “city of waterfalls”. Little more than a village in the early 1900s, Iligan boomed as an industrial centre after the creation of a hydroelectric power scheme in the 1950s. With a population of around 300,000 it’s a friendly, laidback place these days, with a peaceful mix of Christian locals and M’ranao Muslims visiting from nearby Marawi, though the biggest draw for visitors lies outside the city proper in the form of those justly famed cascades.

Iligan’s biggest draws are the waterfalls that puncture the surrounding countryside, as there’s little to see inside the city itself; most of Iligan was rebuilt after a devastating fire in 1957. The most impressive cascade is the Maria Cristina Falls, 8.5km to the southwest of Iligan, which also serves as the main source of power for much of Mindanao. One hundred metres high, the twin falls (named after two heartbroken girls that are supposed to have jumped from the top), plunge into the torrential Agus River, but are at their best Saturday and Sunday at 11am, when the Agus VI Hydroelectric Plant upstream releases the most water. The falls are located with the NPC Nature Park, which also contains some shabby animal exhibits and a three-stage zip line across the river. From the jeepney stop on the highway it’s around 150m to the park entrance; walking on to the falls from the entrance takes around 20min (800m), or there’s a park shuttle for P10. The Mindanao problem Despite its volatile political situation and advice from Western governments to avoid travelling to all of Mindanao, much of the island is safe for foreign travellers. However, you should always check the current situation before travelling and read our advice on trouble spots. Politically the situation is fluid and confusing, with a number of factions and splinter groups calling for varying degrees of autonomy from Manila. The thorniest issue involves Mindanao’s Muslims (also known as Moros), who are seeking self-determination. The Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) started a war for independence in the 1970s that dragged on until 1987, when it signed an agreement accepting the government’s offer of autonomy. As a result, the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, or ARMM, was created in 1990, covering the provinces of Basilan, Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi, plus Marawi City.

The more radical Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) splintered from the MNLF in 1981 and refused to accept the 1987 accord. It has since continued fighting and making uneasy truces, broken many times. In 2008 MILF broke the latest ceasefire after the Supreme Court ruled that a government deal offering them large areas of the south went against the constitution. At the height of the fighting, more than 750,000 people were displaced, and about 400 people killed. At the time of writing things appeared to have calmed; President Benigno Aquino had reopened negotiations with the MILF, proposing a wider Muslim ancestral homeland in Mindanao. Mindanao’s problems don’t end with the MILF, however. One disaffected group of fighters formed Abu Sayyaf, whose centre of operations is largely Basilan Island, off Mindanao’s south coast. Abu Sayyaf, whose name means “Bearer of the Sword”, is said to have ties to a number of Islamic fundamentalist organizations including al-Qaeda. The group finances its operations mainly through robbery, piracy and kidnappings. They are believed to have been responsible for the bombing of Superferry 14 in February 2004, which sank off the coast of Manila with the loss of 116 lives. In 2006 the group’s leader, Khadaffy Janjalani, was shot dead in an encounter with government troops. However, kidnapping remains a threat. And then there’s the communist rebels (aka New People’s Army), who have also been fighting since 1969 for the establishment of a communist state in Mindanao; they remain active in remote parts of the island. Finally, much of the ARMM remains dangerous territory thanks to private armies aligned to corrupt local politicians.

In 2009, 57 men and women (including 34 journalists) were tortured and brutally murdered in what was dubbed the Maguindanao Massacre, apparently for attempting to register a rival candidate for the upcoming elections; the perpetrators were a private militia controlled by the powerful Ampatuan clan (who were arrested and tried in 2010). Mount Malindang National Park Little known and little explored, Mount Malindang National Park is a densely forested region that offers some tough trekking and the opportunity to see rare species such as the tarsier and flying lemur. There are actually four main peaks in Mount Malindang National Park: North Peak, South Peak, Mount Ampiro and Mount Malindang itself, which is the tallest at 2404m. The area was extensively logged before being declared a national park in 1971, so most of the forest growth today is relatively new. There’s a long-established tribal group living in the park, the Subanon, whom you may well encounter at their Lake Duminagat settlement. They consider Mount Malindang their tribal homeland and source of strength. The best time to visit the park is during the months of January to April when the trails are dry. A guide is essential and can be arranged here for P1500 a day. Davao and the southeast The southeast is home to Mindanao’s largest city, Davao, a diverse and friendly place best known for its fresh fruit. Davao itself is not a city of legendary sights, but the nearby countryside and coast harbour plenty of attractions, from idyllic Samal Island to crocodile parks, zip lines and the Philippine Eagle Center. Davao is also the gateway to Mount Apo, the nation’s highest peak and a magnet for trekkers and climbers. Further south, the tuna port of General Santos is the closest city to enigmatic Lake Sebu. It’s also the gateway to Lake Sebu.

Lake Sebu To the west of General Santos, the small town of T’Boli sits on the shores of enchanting Lake Sebu, in a natural bowl surrounded by wooded hills and rolling plantations. This is the ancestral homeland of the T’boli tribe, whose members often wear traditional woven clothes and eye-catching handmade jewellery. It’s a great place to see T’Boli culture at first hand; you can also rent a boat and take a trip on the lake itself and shop in the weekly Saturday market for brassware, beads and fabric. The main sights around the lake are the Seven Falls, a series of plunging cascades you hike up to or fly over on what is probably the most thrilling zip line in the Philippines (P250). The annual Lem-Lunay T’boli festival is held here every year on the second Friday of November and concludes with traditional horse fights. Mount Apo National Park Looming over all Davao, Mount Apo (2954m) is the highest mountain in the country: the name Apo means “grandfather of all mountains”. Apo is actually a volcano, but is certified inactive and has no recorded eruptions. Then there are exotic ferns, carnivorous pitcher plants and the queen of Philippine orchids, the waling-waling. The local tribes, the Bagobos, believe the gods Apo and Mandaragan inhabit Apo’s upper slopes; they revere it as a sacred mountain, calling it Sandawa or “Mountain of Sulphur”. Climbing Mount Apo is not as hard as it sounds. The summit can be approached via two main routes: the Kidapawan Trail on the Cotabato side features hot springs, river crossings and a steep forested trail that leads to the peak via swampy Lake Venado, while the Kapatagan Trail on the Davao side is tougher but cuts through more stereotypically volcanic terrain, culminating in a boulder-strewn slope up to the crater. In both cases you’ll need to buy a permit and to hire a guide from one of the local tourist offices in charge of each route.

They’ll also do a required equipment check and arrange an orientation laying out all the usual rules (no rubbish, no swimming, stick to the trail, no picking anything etc). These offices will recommend a three- to four-day expedition, but experienced climbers could tackle the hike in two days with early starts. Climbing is generally permitted November through May only (dry season), but even so, you’ll need rainproof clothes and a small tent as rain is possible anytime and it gets cold at night. It’s a tough trek, but well worth it: the trail is lined with flowers and the views are mesmerizing, with the whole of Mindanao spread out before you. The main impression you’ll be left with is that Davao’s history is incredibly complex; its indigenous tribes are described in detail, as is the fateful struggle between Datu Bago and conquistador Don Jose Uyanguren in the 1840s. You can arrange diving trips at many resorts on Samal and also in Davao. Most tourists visit Samal on organized tours but it’s also easy to arrange a trip independently. You can choose to spend time at one of the resorts (most of which allow day guests for a fee), or jump on a habal-habal and tour the island by motorbike. Discover more places related to Philippines Prepare for your tripGo tailor-made! IFAD staff, particularly those concerned with gender issues in agriculture, were of the opinion that progress was being achieved in Africa in the area of post-harvest technology for women, especially with equipment such as cereal mills, but little if anything had been done in respect of tools and implements used by women for agricultural production, up to and including harvest. And when attempts had been made to introduce new tools for cultivating or other operations, they had often been rejected by rural people.

Yet, with more than 70 percent of food production work now being done by women in Africa, and with household food security hanging in the balance in so many countries, increasing productivity and reducing women's work load could be central to improving family welfare. The Government of Japan agreed to finance the cost of an international consultant for a period of three months to conduct such a study. In fact, the proposed study coincided perfectly with AGSE's increasing concern in recent years with gender aspects of agricultural engineering, and also with its emphasis on all aspects of farm power, whether human, animal or motorized AGSE therefore agreed to support the study in all ways possible.Eight field researchers worked in each country. Their names are in the Appendix at the end of each country report. The field work took place between August and November 1997. The research teams in all of the countries were outstanding for their interest in the study, for their ability to learn the participatory research methods used, and for their commitment to seeing the field work properly done. Their contribution was outstanding. Special gratitude must go to Mona Fikry, the IFAD staff member who launched the idea of the study, for her open-mindedness when she said during the early planning phase, 'I am quite prepared for the results of the study to be negative, that nothing can be done, but we need to know what the situation is.' There was similar open mindedness from Lawrence Clarke, the Chief of AGSE in FAO, who supported the team wholeheartedly through the whole study but always gave it full independence to work as it thought best. These countries were selected as providing a fair cross-section of Sub-Saharan Africa, as well as being the site of IFAD and FAO-assisted projects that could provide support in the field. They tend, therefore, to reply on the basis of what they think the interviewer wants to hear.

So the consultant proposed a participatory research technique based on Focus Group Discussions with rural women and men separately. A facilitator and an observer are present, and the aim is to create an informal and intimate atmosphere in which the group members talk among themselves about themes put forward by the facilitator. He or she uses a basic question guide but must also use follow-up questions that provoke the group into deeper analysis of the issues they are discussing. The method has much in common with group therapy. For it to function well as a process, and to record faithfully the group's ideas and opinions, calls for special techniques from the facilitator and observer. There were always at least four women among the eight researchers, and usually more. They were almost all field staff from various institutions ant they all had detailed knowledge of their country's agricultural production systems and women's role in them. The training lasted 2-3 days in a workshop situation followed by 2-3 days of supervision and reinforcement training in the field. The APO was the observer who, after the discussion, conducted a restitution to the group of the information that had emerged, obtaining the group's point by point confirmation that what he had noted was correct, and writing the information on flip charts. Thus, the training was a learning-by-doing, highly practical experience. It also focused the trainee's attention on the topic, and in this way the scene was effectively set for the study. The researchers then worked for another week in the field, without the consultant and APO so as to eliminate any possible distortion caused by the presence of foreigners. A total of about 1,530 people were involved Local languages were used for all of the Focus Group Discussions with rural people. Key informant interviews were conducted by the consultant, the APOs, and the Study Co-ordinators.

These interviews totalled 52 in number and they included: government staff concerned with agricultural development, gender matters, and mechanization; representatives of banking and credit services; university and research staff; representatives of NGOs; blacksmiths; and importers and industrial manufacturers of tools and implements. The agricultural economy in these areas was mainly at subsistence level, with consequent limitations in the availability of resources for investment in improved production technology. Although there were strong similarities among the axes, harvesting sickles, and slashers found everywhere, some countries had tools that others did not have at all. For example, there were no rakes or multiple-tined forks for composting in Burkina Faso, and no wheelbarrows were seen in Senegal. But Burkina Faso was the only country with a simple home-made row marker - like a large rake with three spikes set at the desired row width - that could be pulled across the field by hand before planting. Row planting by hand in countries of Eastern and Southern Africa is achieved with the much more cumbersome technique of stretching a marking wire or cord across the plot. And in Uganda, women had adopted a flexible steel strip, normally used to strap roof timbers together, as a tool for weeding millet. Most of the nation's people live there, but the conditions are so difficult that few farmers can rise above the level of the hand hoe as their prime production tool. The few animal draft implements that were found in the Central Plateau were all blacksmith-built and were generally fitted with a duckfoot tine for inter-row cultivating. None of the implements manufactured industrially in Burkina Faso were found in the area of the study, probably because they cost about twice as much as those built by blacksmiths, and today no credit is available to buy them. Indeed, the credit organizations that used to provide 5-year loans for anneal traction packages no longer do so.

They state that such credit is economically not viable in the Central Plateau. But the credit schemes that enabled this important expansion of animal traction collapsed in 1980, so most of the implements are old and show signs of repeated repair by blacksmiths. Even so, and as an example of the degree to which animal traction has taken over, hand planting of crops has virtually disappeared in the area of Central Senegal where the study was conducted. Old and battered single-row planters, usually drawn by a horse, still serve their purpose well, and women demonstrated to the research team, with some glee, how they used to plant with hand hoes in the past. At the time of this study.In the intervening years, from 1980 to 1997, virtually the only new implements sold were built by blacksmiths. The reasons for this relate to history, culture, and the presence of tsetse fly elsewhere, though tsetse is now well on the way to eradication. So in Central Uganda, where conditions for agriculture are very favourable, hoe farming is still the norm, though people are very interested in knowing more about anneal traction. The country has a recently reconditioned and fully equipped factory in Soroti which is producing animal draft implements. The spread of animal traction has been impeded by several factors: one is that the Government's high import duties on raw materials makes it virtually impossible for any implement manufacturer to survive. In fact those that were in existence have collapsed in the last few years, so implements now have to be imported from Zimbabwe. And making things even more difficult for Zambian manufacturers is that the Government of Zimbabwe subsidizes the cost of steel for its manufacturers, and also subsidises exports as well. A second factor is that Corridor disease, a tickborne ailment, has decimated the cattle population, including draft oxen, in recent years.